SRetail Merchandising College of Design



Hyunjoo Im

Hye-Young Kim

Hye-Young Kim

Juanjuan Wu

Juanjuan Wu


Hyunjoo Im received her PhD in Consumer Sciences and her research interest is Consumer Psychology, particularly in the context of use of new technology in omni-channel environments. She has built her research programs around two major topics: (1) visual information processing of consumers, and (2) consumers' use of technology in shopping.


Visual Perception and Information Processing
All consumers' decision-making is dependent on perception and Information processing. Visual perception has been an important aspect of consumer behavior but is particularly important in today's retailing because of the prevalence of non-traditional shopping channels such as online and mobile shopping. Dr. Im has studied consumer visual perception through several research projects. Her specific interests include aesthetic perception and evaluation, attention, and visual stimuli effect on engagement in an online environment. Examples of research projects are:

  • Visual information quality and its influence on consumer design evaluation, emotion, and behavioral intention
  • Website design and consumer engagement with the website
  • Selective attention of consumers in reading commercial websites

Ha, Y., & Im, H. (2012). Role of web site design quality in satisfaction and word of mouth generation. Journal of Service Management, 23(1), 79-96.
Im, H., & Ha, Y. (2011). The effect of perceptual fluency and enduring involvement on situational involvement in an online apparel shopping context. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 15(3), 345-362. DOI:10.1108/13612021111151923.
Im, H., & Ha, S. (2011). An exploration of the cognitive-affective model of satisfaction in a shopping context: A testing of competing models. The Service Industries Journal. 31(13), 2273-2288.
Im, H., Lennon, S. J., & Stoel, L. (2010). The perceptual fluency effect on pleasurable online experience. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 4(4), 280-295.


Consumers' Use of Technology in Shopping
The retail industry is witnessing unprecedented changes both in its business operation and in consumer shopping habits. It is critical that retailers understand how consumers react to new technologies and decide how to incorporate the technologies into their business. Dr. Im has investigated this issue of technology usage and perception in the context of online, mobile, and Omni-channel retailing. Some topics she studied include:

  • Consumer characteristics and technology adoption
  • Technology acceptance and innovation diffusion theory in the context of mobile commerce
  • Location-based services and consumer risk perceptions

Ha, Y., & Im, H. (2014). Determinants of mobile coupon adoption among US consumers: Assessment of gender difference. International Journal of Retailing and Distribution, 42(5),
Im, H., & Ha, Y. (2013). A model of permission-based marketing: enablers and inhibitors of mobile coupon adoption. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20, 495-503.
Im, H. & Ha, Y. (2012). Who are the users of mobile coupons? A profile of US consumers. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 6(3), 215-232.


Hye-Young Kim received her Ph.D. in Retail and Consumer Sciences with a minor in Statistics from the University of Tennessee. She joined the University of Minnesota in 2008 after serving on the faculty at Washington State University. Her ultimate goal with her research is to make significant theoretical and managerial contributions to the field of retail merchandising by expanding our understanding of consumer behavior theory and practice. The majority of her work to date can be divided into three broad fronts: consumer psychology, retail strategy, and branding. While these three topics of research may appear as separate and distinct streams, they are intended to converge on her ultimate research theme: the mechanism of emotional (customer) loyalty formation. Specifically, she has endeavored to do this by investigating three areas: (a) the dynamics of consumer-retailer relationships, (b) the multifaceted nature of luxury brand consumption, and (c) consumer perspectives on retailer brands.

Kim’s research has been recognized as Best Paper/ Paper of Distinction at Global Marketing Conference (2012), International Textile and Apparel Association (2007, 2008, 2010), and American Collegiate Retailing Association (2005, 2008, 2011). She served as Associate Editor for the Special Issue of the Clothing and Textiles Research Journal focused on “Fashion and Health.”

Selected Journal Publications
Kim, H-Y., Johnson, K. K. P., Kang, J., & Lee. J. (2014). Latino retail entrepreneurs in
Minnesota: Strategies for success. Journal of Human Sciences and Extension, 2(1), 90-101.

Kim, H-Y., Lee, J., Choi, D., Wu, J., Johnson, K. K. P. (2013). Perceived benefits of retail loyalty programs: Their effects on program loyalty and customer loyalty. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 12(2), 95-113.

Kim, H-Y., Kang, J., & Johnson, K. K. P. (2012). Effect of consumer relationship proneness on perceived loyalty program attributes and resistance to change. The International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 40(5), 386-387.

Kim, H-Y., Yoo, J., Choi, D., Kim, J., Johnson, K. K. P. (2011). Personal luxury values associated with fashion brand consumption: An exploratory analysis of demographic variations in the United States. Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 2(3), 130-138.

Kim, H-Y., & Kwon, Y. (2011). Soulmates, best friends, and casual buddies: The relationship of U.S. college students to retailer brands. Clothing & Textiles Research Journal, 29(1), 67-82.

Kim, H-Y., Kim, Y., Jolly, L., & Fairhurst, A. (2010). The role of love in satisfied customers’ relationships with retailers. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 20(3), 285-296.

Kim, H-Y., & Lee, M. (2010). Emotional loyalty and share of wallet: A contingency approach. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 17(5), 333-339.

Kim, H-Y., & Kim, Y. (2008). Receptivity to advertising messages and desired shopping values. Journal of Marketing Communications, 14(5), 367-385.

Kim, H-Y., Kim, Y., Jolly, L., & Fairhurst, A. (2008). Satisfied customers’ love toward retailers: A cross-product exploration. Advances in Consumer Research, 35, 507-515.

Kim, H-Y., & Kim, Y. (2008). Shopping enjoyment and store shopping modes: The moderating influence of chronic time pressure. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 15(5), 410-419.

Kim, H-Y., Jolly, L., & Kim, Y. (2007). Future forces transforming apparel retailing in the United States: An environmental scanning approach. Clothing & Textiles Research Journal, 25(4), 307-322.

Kim, H-Y., & Kim, Y. (2007). Enriching the customer experience: Implications for e-marketers. Journal of Value Chain Management, 1(1/2), 45-62.

Kim, H-Y., & Kim, Y. (2005). Escapism, consumer lock-in, attitude, and purchase: An illustration from an online shopping context. Journal of Shopping Center Research, 12(2), 109-120.



Juanjuan Wu joined the College of Design in 2008, serving as a bridge between retail merchandising and design, from the State University of New York College at Oneonta, where she was an assistant professor from 2005 to 2008. Wu’s scholarship is focused on the intersection and innovation of design and retail merchandising. She is also a leading scholar on Chinese fashion. ¬†Wu has been invited to speak at various international and national venues, including the Yunlin Symposium and Workshop in Taiwan in 2013, the Costume Institute at the Phoenix Art Museum in 2011, and the International Fashion Forum in Shanghai in 2009. She earned two Paper of Distinction awards from the 2010 annual conference of the International Textile and Apparel Association, one as a lead author and one as a coauthor. As a coauthor, she also won the Educators for Socially Responsible Apparel Business (ESRAB) Award along with one of her graduate advisees.

Wu’s recent research has been focused on:

  • Merchandise display methods and co-design powered by 3D technology

Wu takes an innovative approach in creating and experimenting with new methods of merchandise display. Retail merchandising innovations generally take place in retail stores instead of being initiated from research. With the aid of 3D technology, however, researchers can also create and empirically test innovative merchandise displays that can change the direction of retailing. In one of her research projects, products were displayed and grouped based on various key design factors, such as color (warmness/coolness), visual texture (smoothness/roughness; heavy/light), and style coordination.

 Innovation concerns not only tangible output (e.g., virtual stores with new merchandise display methods created using 3D technology as discussed above) but also intangible output, which can be a new design process. To capitalize on the collective creative power of consumers, Wu adopted co-design to directly involve consumers in the co-creation of merchandise displays in virtual stores.

Selected Work

Wu, J., Kim, A. & Koo, J. (2014, in press). Co-design visual merchandising in 3D virtual stores: A Facet Theory approach. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management.
Wu, J., Ju, H.W., Kim, J., Damminga, C., Kim, H-Y. & Johnson, K.P.K. (2013). Fashion product display: An experiment with Mockshop investigating color, visual texture, and style coordination. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 41(10), 765-789.
Wu, J., Kim, A. & Koo, J. (2013, Oct.). Co-design visual merchandising in a 3D virtual store with Target: A facet theory approach. The 69th annual conference of the International Textile and Apparel Association, New Orleans, LA.
Damminga, C., Wu, J. & Johnson, K.P.K. (2012). The effect of lifestyle and shoppable fashion product displays on consumers’ approach and avoidance behavior. Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 3(3), 108-118.

  • Co-design community and crowdsourcing in online retailing

Wu investigates real-world innovations linking design with retailing in online co-design communities. A recent development in co-design is the formation of online communities where users interact with each other, which serve as a powerful platform for idea generation and problem solving. This new development could potentially revolutionize the ways of producing, promoting, and distributing products and services. Businesses are adapting to and benefiting from this new model and culture of online community participation. Wu have led several research projects in order to understand online co-design community-driven innovations and community-generated retail environments.

One project investigated the interactive and interconnected processes of co-designing fashion products in online communities. In an online co-design community users jointly perform the co-design process and give each other feedback and inspiration. Online co-design communities provide a new approach to the design process in which design is democratized and designers interconnected. They simultaneously provide a new approach to retailing that is characterized by user-created product offerings and retail environments. In these online co-design communities, consumers take on multiple roles: they become co-designers, co-sellers, co-marketers, and buyers. Online co-design communities can also function as social networks where like-minded strangers meet, make friends, and find a sense of belonging.

Selected Work
Wu, J., Kang, J.Y., Damminga, C.B., Kim, H-Y. & Johnson, K.P.K. (2014, in press). MC 2.0: Testing an apparel co-design experience model. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management.
Wu, J., Kim, A.J., Damminga, C., & Chen, L. (2012, Jul.). A content analysis of online mass customization 1.0, 2.0, and crowd sourced fashion business. The 2012 Global Marketing Conference, Soeul, S. Korea.
Wu, J., Chen, L., Kim, H-Y., & Johnson, K.K.P. (2011, Nov.). Does community co-design create better products? An investigation of consumer attitudes. The 6th World Conference on Mass Customization & Personalization, San Francisco, CA.
Wu, J., Damminga, C., Johnson, K.P.K., & Kim, H-Y. (2010). Content analysis of online co-design community interactions: A case study of crowd-sourced Threadless. Journal of Global Academy of Marketing Science, 20(4), 334-342.
Wu, J. (2010). Co-design communities online: Turning public creativity into wearable and sellable fashions. Fashion Practice: The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion Industry, 2(1), 85-104.
Wu, J. (2010, Sept.). Making and selling: A survey of online co-design retailers. Making, Selling, Buying, Using: Emerging Issues in Product Design Symposium, UMN, MN.

  • Chinese fashion, design, retail, and consumption

Retailing today is operated at a global level in nearly every aspect, from product development, human recourses, sourcing, to distribution. Emerging technologies further increase the flow of ideas, people, and products globally. Thus, researchers in this field accordingly need to adopt a global vision. Wu’s educational and professional background in Chinese fashion gives her a natural advantage in conducting research on consumers and fashion businesses in China. Nearly all major big box retailers in the US and the world at large source their products and production in China. At the same time, Chinese consumers and retail markets are rapidly growing and are increasingly integrated into the world’s retail and consumption systems. Chinese consumers are emerging as a substantial force in shaping the direction of global retailing. As a point of focus on a specific and important geographical and cultural case, Wu’s research on Chinese consumers’ fashion choices and their reciprocal influences on fashion design and distribution at a global level extends and is integral to her research on retailing and design.

A major product of Wu’s research on Chinese fashion resulted in her book Chinese Fashion from Mao to Now (2009). This book highlights the hybridity of Chinese fashion both as a result of and as a catalyst for the interplay between China and the world over the past thirty years. Wu also co-edited a book entitled Fashion Industry and City Civilization (2010) with a professor in China. This book explores the dimensions of fashion cityscapes, including fashion, space, architecture, city planning, policy, and cultural meaning.

Selected Work
Wu, J. (2014, in press). Cheongsam. In The encyclopedia of ethnic clothing in the United States. AltaMira Press (word count: 1,185).
Wu, J. (2014, in press). Mao Suit. In The encyclopedia of ethnic clothing in the United States. AltaMira Press (word count: 1,006).
Wu, J. (2012). Editorial, in J. Wu, (Ed.) Contemporary Chinese Fashion special issue of Fashion Practice: The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion Industry (pp. 5-12). Berg Publishers.
Wu, J. (2012). Imagination + life: Wang Yiyang’s design core, in J. Wu, (Ed.) Contemporary Chinese Fashion special issue of Fashion Practice: The Journal of Design, Creative Process & the Fashion Industry (pp. 113-126). Berg Publishers.
Wu, J. & Chen, Y. (2011). Film and fashion in post-Mao China. In Berg encyclopedia of world dress and fashion: East Asia (Vol.6, online version, word count: 2,795). Oxford: Berg Publishers.
Wu, J. (2010). Han bridal dress. In Berg encyclopedia of world dress and fashion: East Asia (Vol. 6, pp. 109-120). Oxford: Berg Publishers.
Wu, J. & Vollmer, J. (2010). Han dress overview. In Berg encyclopedia of world dress and fashion: East Asia (Vol. 6, pp.130-135). Oxford: Berg Publishers.
Wu, J. (2010). The application of Symbolic Interaction Theory in the study of Chinese fashion, in X. Bian & J. Wu, (Ed.) Fashion industry & city civilization (pp. 173-183). Shanghai, PRC: Donghua University Chubanshe.
Bian, X. & Wu, J. (Ed.). (2010). Fashion industry & city civilization. Shanghai, PRC: Donghua University Chubanshe (260 pages).
Wu, J. (2009). Chinese fashion from Mao to now. Oxford: Berg Publishers (Blind peer reviewed, 256 pages).
Wu, J. & Delong, M. (2006). Chinese perceptions of Western-branded denim jeans: A Shanghai case study. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 10(2), 238-250.
Delong, M., Wu, J., & Bao, M. (2005). The influence of Chinese dress on Western fashion. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 9(2), 166-179.
Delong, M., Bao, M., Wu, J., Chao, H., & Li, M. (2004). Perception of US branded apparel in Shanghai. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 8(2), 141-153.

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